By Norman Smith
In Intoxicating Manchuria, Norman Smith finds how large intoxicant industries have been altered by way of warlord rule, eastern profession, and conflict. Powering the unfold of alcohol and opium -- first and foremost heralded as markers of sophistication or modernity and whose use was once good documented -- those industries flourished during the early 20th century at the same time a lively anti-intoxicant circulate raged.
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In Intoxicating Manchuria, Norman Smith unearths how large intoxicant industries have been altered through warlord rule, eastern profession, and warfare. Powering the unfold of alcohol and opium -- first and foremost heralded as markers of sophistication or modernity and whose use was once good documented -- those industries flourished in the course of the early 20th century whilst a full of life anti-intoxicant stream raged.
Additional info for Intoxicating Manchuria: Alcohol, Opium, and Culture in China's Northeast
In the early occupation, many local producers were driven out of the market by Japanese domination, rising costs, declining revenues, and difficulty with grain procurement. 98 These substantial numbers underline the significance of the industry, as do amendments to the laws governing alcohol. On 1 July 1935 the Manchukuo alcohol law was enacted; it was subsequently reformed in August 1937, December 1937, March 1939, and December 1940, and a fifth revision was promulgated on 30 August 1941. These laws focused mainly on taxation and the issuing of permits.
Officials calculated that the eradication of opiate addiction could free up to 300 million yuan annually for industrial development and loudly voiced their intention to achieve this goal. Undeterred, critics charged that the perpetuation of the lucrative industry under the auspices of the Japanese was evidence of the genocidal nature of their rule; opiates were politicized as never before. Western critics joined the chorus condemning Manchukuo’s opiate industry. In 1934 famed sinologist Edgar Snow recounted his impressions of Manchukuo for the Saturday Evening Post.
86 Manchukuo’s Opium Monopoly (Yapian zhuanmai gongshu; henceforth Monopoly) began to oversee implementation of the Opium Law at the beginning of 1933. Manchurian Context 31 The Monopoly was launched amid much fanfare as an anchor of Japan’s East Asian modernity project and to demonstrate the benevolent nature of Manchukuo rule. Reflecting state policies, recreational opium consumption was denounced, as was long the custom in the Shengjing shibao, the region’s largest Chinese-language newspaper.